Solid State Science and Technology, Vol. 17, No 2 (2009) 96-102

ISSN 0128-7389

Corresponding Author:






Y.H. Taufiq-Yap, S. Matali and M.Z. Hussein

Putra Laboratory for Catalysis Science and Technology,

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia

43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.



Layered vanadyl phosphate dihydrate, VOPO42H2O is one of the precursor to vanadyl pyrophosphate (VPO) catalyst which is the sole catalyst used industrially for the partial

oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. With a basal spacing of 0.74 nm, layered

VOPO42H2O was used as the host and Co-complex (Co(acac)2) as a guest The obtained

precursor, VOHPO40.5H2O was confirmed by XRD and were activated in a reaction

flow of n-butane/air mixture (0.75% n-butane/air) to form vanadyl pyrophosphate

catalyst ((VO)2P2O7) at 460oC for 18 h. Both catalysts were characterised by using

several methods i.e. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Braunner Emmer Teller (BET) surface

area and Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), Redox titration and Scanning

Electron Microscopy (SEM). Co-complex was succesfully intercalated into the layer and

as proven by XRD with a presence of a new peak appeared at 2θ = 6.8 and another new

peak was also observed at 2θ = 13.5 . TPR studies of Co intercalated VPO shows a

sharp peak come with larger area (compared to unintercalated catalyst) which correspond

to the removal of oxygen species associated to V4+ phase. Another peak at lower

temperature which corresponds to the oxygen species released from V5+ phase. An

improved of n-butane conversion is expected due to the increment of the active oxygen

species (O-) which responsible to the activation of n-butane. Higher amount of oxygen

linked to V5+ also will contribute to the activity of the Co-intercalated catalyst.



[1]. Hutchings, G.J. (2004); J. Mater. Chem. 14, 3385.

[2]. Hutchings, G.J. (1991; Appl. Catal. 72, 1.

[3]. Kamiya, Y., Kijima, Y., Ohkura, T., Satsuma, A. and Hattori, T. (2003); Appl.

Catal. A: Gen. 253, 1.

[4]. Hiyoshi, N., Yamamoto, N., Ryumon, N., Kamiya, Y. and Okuhara, T (2004); J.

Catal. 221, 225.

[5]. Melanova, K, Benes, L. and Zima, Z. (1999); J. Incl. Phen. & Macro. Chem.

33, 391.

[6]. Benes, L., Votinsky, J., Kalousova, J. and Klikorka, J. (1986); Inorg. Chim. Acta

176, 255.

[7]. Nakato, T., Furumi, Y., Terao N. and Okuhara, T. (2000); J. Mat. Chem. 10,


[8]. Benes, L. and Hyklova H. (1990); Inorg. Chim. Acta 177, 71.

[9]. Melanova, K, Benes, L. and Zima, Z.(2001); J. Solid State Chem. 157, 50.

[10]. Capkova, P., Trchova, M., Zima, Z. and Schenk, H. (2000); J. Solid State

Chem. 150, 356.

[11]. Satsuma, A., Kijima, Y., Komai, S., Kamiya, Y., Nishikawa, E. and Hattori, T.

(2001); Catal. Today 71, 161.

[12]. Hiyoshi, N., Yamamoto, N., Kamiya,Y. Nishikawa, N. and Okuhara T. (2001);

Catal. Today 71, 129.

[13]. Hutching, G.J., Olier, R., Sananes, M.T. and Volta, J.C. (1994); New

Developments In Selective Oxidation II 213, 220.

[14]. Niwa M. and Murakami, Y. (1982); J. Catal. 76, 9.

[15]. Hutchings, G.J., Kiely, C.J., Sananes-Schulz, M.T., Burrows, A. and Volta, J.C.

(1998); Catal. Today 58, 273.

[16]. Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., Goh, C.K., Hutchings, G.J., Dummer, N.and Bartley, J.K.

(2006); J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem., 260, 24